Jerusalem, Israel Occupied Palestine
Coordinates: 31.776111, 35.228204
Also Knows as Tower of David, Jerusalem Citadel is an ancient citadel located near the Jaffa Gate entrance to the Old City of Jerusalem.
Arabic name of Tower of David is Burj al-Qal’a.
The citadel that stands today dates to the Mamluk and Ottoman periods.
It was built on the site of a series of earlier ancient fortifications of the Hasmonean, Herodian, Byzantine and Early Muslim periods, after being destroyed repeatedly during the last decades of Crusader presence in Palestine by Islamic forces.
The name “Tower of David” was first used for the tower in the 5th century CE by the Christians, who believed the site to be the palace of Hz. Dawud عليه اسلام
They borrowed the name “Tower of David” from the Song of Songs, attributed to Hz. Sulaiman عليه اسلام , Hz. Dawud’s عليه اسلام son. (acc to christians sources)
However the christians scholars say today that they named it, “the Tower of David” mistakenly identifying the hill as Mount Zion, presumed it to be David’s palace mentioned in Biblical texts. (Christians sources)
Fortification by various Islamic rulers
After the Arab conquest of Jerusalem in 638, the new Muslim rulers refurbished the old citadel.
This powerful structure withstood the assault of the Crusaders in 1099, and surrendered only when its defenders were guaranteed safe passage out of the city.
In 1187, Hz. Salahuddin Ayyubi رحمة الله عليه captured the city including the citadel.
In 1239 the Ayyubid emir of Karak, An-Nasir Dawud, attacked the Crusader garrison and destroyed the citadel.
In 1244 the Khwarazmians defeated and banished the Crusaders from Jerusalem for a last time. The Mamluks destroyed the citadel in 1260.
In 1310 the citadel was rebuilt by Mamluk sultan Al-Nasir Muhammad ibn Qalawun, who gave it much of its present shape.
Note: Some of the information in this article comes from Christians sources.